By S. Derek. William Mitchell College of Law.
The evidence analyzed addresses nonpalpable lesions only and is used to present criteria that physicians can apply to these individual patients buy generic kamagra polo 100 mg line erectile dysfunction doctors in memphis tn. By incorporating the evidence into clinical decision making purchase kamagra polo 100 mg erectile dysfunction patient.co.uk doctor, practitioners can develop personal or organizational guidelines that will assist in choosing the biopsy method that is best for each patient. Methodology Medline searches were performed using PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) for original research publications dis- cussing the diagnostic performance and effectiveness of mammography, breast ultrasound, and imaging-guided percutaneous biopsy of nonpalpa- ble breast lesions. The search strategies employed different combinations of the following terms: (1) breast biopsy, (2) stereotactic OR ultrasound OR imaging guided, (3) nonpalpable breast lesion, (4) mammography, (5) ultrasound OR sonography AND breast, (6) breast screening, (7) breast screening guidelines, (8) harms and anxiety, and (9) cost-effectiveness. Additional articles were iden- tiﬁed by reviewing the reference lists of relevant papers and by including recently published studies not yet indexed in Medline. The authors per- formed an initial review of the titles and abstracts of the identiﬁed articles followed by review of the full text in articles that were relevant. Summary of Evidence: The fundamental goal of mammographic screening is to reduce the incidence rate of advanced breast cancer by detecting the disease early in its natural history (29). There is strong evidence for the beneﬁt of mammography from a series of prospective randomized con- trolled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses (30–34) and moderate evidence of beneﬁt from institutional-based case series studies (35) and recent evalua- tions of population-based service screening (36,37). Results from individ- ual trials showed signiﬁcant mortality reductions ranging from 22% to 32% (38). A smaller level of beneﬁt is observed in meta-analysis results that combine all trials, due to variability in end results (38,39). Results from service screening with modern mammography have shown greater mor- tality reductions (40–50%) among women who participate in regular screening (37,40). Supporting Evidence: There have been eight prospective RCTs of breast cancer screening. Each RCT followed a somewhat different protocol, and the outcome in each has been inﬂuenced by a number of design and protocol factors that have important implications for the interpretation of study end results. These factors include the study methodology, the clinical protocol, adherence to the randomization assignment (compliance and contamina- tion), and the number of screening rounds before an invitation was extended to the control group. Other factors that likely inﬂuenced end results include the quality of the screening process, thresholds for diagnosis, and follow- up mechanisms for women with an abnormality. Individual RCT results and meta-analysis results should be interpreted in the context of study method- ology to demonstrate efﬁcacy rather than a measure of the potential effec- tiveness of mammography, since the classic intention-to-treat analysis compares breast cancer mortality in a group invited to screening with breast cancer mortality in a group receiving usual care rather than a screened vs. Moreover, variability in RCT outcomes is consistent with the performance of each study’s success at reducing the risk of being diag- nosed with an advanced breast cancer compared with the control group. Speciﬁcally, those RCTs that signiﬁcantly reduced the risk of being diag- nosed with a node-positive breast cancer showed similar reductions in the risk of breast cancer death in the group invited to screening (38,51). T h e r a n d o m i z e d c o n t r o l l e d t r i a l s o f b r e a s t c a n c e r s c r e e n i n g S t u d y S c r e e n i n g p r o t o c o l F r e q u e n c y S t u d y p o p u l a t i o n Y e a r s o f R R ( d u r a t i o n ) I n v i t e d v s. O n l y t h e ﬁ r s t g r o u p ’ s r e s u l t s h a d b e e n r e p o r t e d p r e v i o u s l y. O n l y t h e ﬁ r s t g r o u p ’ s r e s u l t s h a d b e e n r e p o r t e d p r e v i o u s l y. Over the years, there have been numerous studies reporting the results from the individual RCTs and meta-analyses, although screening policy in the United States began to take shape based on initial ﬁndings from the HIP study. The trials now have a substantial amount of follow-up time ranging from 12 to 20 years. In a recent overview of the RCTs, a meta-analysis of the most current data showed an overall relative risk of breast cancer death associated with an invitation to screening of 0. These estimates are lower than some of the individual RCTs, due to RCT variability, and considerably lower than mortality reduc- tions observed in service screening, in large part due to measuring the beneﬁt of an invitation to screening rather than actually being screened. The breast cancer RCT data have recently undergone several indepen- dent reevaluations for the purpose of updating screening guidelines (33,39,52), and several evidence-based reviews (42,53–56). A recent review by the Cochrane Collaboration was sharply critical of the RCTs that had shown a beneﬁt from mammographic screening, and concluded that there was insufﬁcient evidence to recommend screening with mammography (53). Representatives from the RCTs and others responded to these criti- cisms and showed them to be either incorrect, inconsequential, or, if true, previously and satisfactorily addressed by the authors in original publica- tions (34,50,55,57–61).
In its use the disguise of language buy kamagra polo 100 mg low price erectile dysfunction journal articles, developed ever so carefully over a lifetime buy kamagra polo 100mg with amex erectile dysfunction lipitor, is dropped, and in its place a psyche is projected onto a blank piece of paper—a reﬂection of not only an individual’s self-concept but his or her concept of others. A pro- jection of ourselves and our environment as we see it, from our own view- point, without any inﬂuence from external subjective material. Projective testing has always had many detractors, and we review this literature later in the chapter; however, it is my belief that although the un- conscious nature of art certainly makes its study difﬁcult such study is by no means impossible. In that vein, this chapter focuses on projective methods of personality analysis and spotlights three techniques: the Draw-A-Person (DAP), the House-Tree-Person (HTP), and the Eight-Card Redrawing Test (8CRT). I have selected the ﬁrst two procedures because they are the most frequently utilized of the art projective tests. I include the 8CRT because in my own 103 Reading Between the Lines work with the difﬁcult client this assessment tool has proven to be indis- pensable for evaluating personality decompensation. The history of art projective testing can be traced to Florence Good- enough’s Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings (1926). In this seminal work Goodenough focused on the human ﬁgure as a measurement of intel- ligence (IQ). However, as time went by "it was discovered that careful study of the individual drawings often yielded rich clinical material not related to the intellectual level of the subject" (Machover, 1949, p. Since this dis- covery, the Draw-a-Person (DAP) technique was developed as a basis for us- ing the body as a vehicle for self-expression and thus for personality anal- ysis. Machover has stated, "in a signiﬁcant proportion of cases, drawings do permit accurate judgments covering the subject’s emotional and psychosex- ual maturity, his anxiety, guilt, aggression, and a host of other traits" (p. In the mid- to late 1940s John Buck added a house and tree to the ex- isting DAP assessment and called it the House-Tree-Person (HTP). He chose to add these items for three reasons: "(1) They were items familiar even to the comparatively young child; (2) they were found to be more willingly accepted as objects for drawing by subjects of all ages than other items suggested; and (3) they appeared to stimulate more frank and free verbalization than did other items" (Buck, 1948, p. Buck believed that his approach would yield both a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of an individual’s drawing. A few years after the publi- cation of Buck’s HTP, Leopold Caligor developed the 8CRT, which he hoped would provide quantiﬁcation through the use of successive drawings (content) instead of a mere evaluation of detailed signs. Ultimately, the 8CRT was to consist "of eight interrelated drawings, each a development of the immediately preceding one. Re- grettably, this art assessment never gained popular appeal; instead, it gave way to the other art projective tests that had come before. Though not reviewed in this book, other art assessments, such as the Kinetic-Family-Drawing (Burns & Kaufman, 1972b), introduced action into family drawings. Subsequently, Burns (1987) expanded the House- Tree-Drawing technique by including a kinetic component that ultimately produced the Kinetic-House-Tree-Person test in the late 1980s. Although the techniques described make use of differing directives and methods of interpretation, they have one very important component in common: the interpretation of a general system of symbols and metaphor. These images, when interpreted on verbal and nonverbal levels, lead the clinician toward an intuitive realm of functioning. Nevertheless, from the late 1950s to the present day, critical reviews have been available that out- line a myriad of problems not just with projective drawings but also with the Rorschach test and Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), to name just a few (Seitz, 2002). In Handbook of Projective Techniques, Clifford Swensen (1965) outlined a host of researchers who tested the validity of Machover’s DAP technique. From a review of this testing, he found that the DAP lacked sufﬁcient evi- dence for use in clinical work as a singular test but should instead be used concomitantly as one part of a diagnostic battery. It is not surprising that Swensen’s review of the literature found a lack of validity and reliability, as he goes on to state: It must have been evident to the reader, in the presentation of the studies re- viewed in this paper, that few of the studies reported were designed to test speciﬁc hypotheses of Machover’s. Studies which attempt to evaluate the signiﬁcance of patterns of signs on the DAP appear to be more promising than attempts to evaluate the signiﬁcance of individual DAP signs. With the test designed to reveal an individual’s masked person- ality layers, Caligor performed three separate studies. The ﬁrst was in 1951 to determine an individual’s unconscious notion of his own masculinity- femininity identiﬁcation, where results were ultimately compared to the TAT and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). In 1952 he investigated the use of the 8CRT to detect paranoid trends, and in the following year he created a multi-item checklist in the hopes of develop- ing a more objective and quantitative method for evaluating his 8CRT (Caligor, 1952). However, as noted, Caligor’s 8CRT has fallen into obscu- rity, and the only research completed was by the founder of the technique himself. Throughout his book The Clinical Application of Projective Drawings (1958), Hammer reviews extensive research on various art projective test- ing, and he sums up problems that face researchers in their attempts to val- idate the testing as follows: Projective data is [sic] the product of a multiplicity of variables. In the tradi- tional scientiﬁc investigation, one variable is isolated and explored.
Generally buy 100 mg kamagra polo with visa encore erectile dysfunction pump, there is no treatment for atrophy discount kamagra polo 100 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction treatment comparison, whereas hydrocephalus can often be treated with ventricular or subarachnoid space shunts and/or removal of the obstruc- tive or overproducing lesion. The diagnosis of NPH requires very close correlation between the clinical findings and the imaging results, and the best diagnostic test for NPH is still clinical improvement after ventricular shunting. It is difficult to distinguish NPH from atrophic ventriculomegaly on a single examina- tion. Follow-up with serial CT or MR imaging is therefore necessary, and may show that the dilated ventricles have returned to normal size, re- main enlarged, or, most importantly, that there has been no further in- terval enlargement. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Meningeal Enhancement 45 Differentiation based on radiological features Radiological charac- Hydrocephalus Brain atrophy teristic Ventricular system Temporal horns Enlarged Normal (except in Alzheimer’s disease) Frontal horns (ventricu- More acute More obtuse lar angle) 3rd ventricle Convex Concave 4th ventricle Normal or enlarged Normal (except in cere- bellar atrophy) Periventricular edema Present (transependymal mi- Absent (rule out gration of CSF, especially to ischemia) the frontal and occipital horns. Edema resolves quickly after ventricular decompression by shunting, within 24 hours) Aqueduct flow void Accentuated (in normoten- Normal sive hydrocephalus) Corpus callosum Thin, distended, rounded Normal or atrophied elevation. Increased forni- Normal fornicocallosal cocallosal distance distance Sulci Flattened Enlarged dispropor- tionately to age Fissures (choroidal, Normal to mildly enlarged Markedly enlarged (in hippocampal) Alzheimer’s disease) CSF: cerebrospinal fluid. Meningeal Enhancement Postcraniotomy In 80% of patients indicating inflammatory or chemi- meningeal enhance- cal arachnoiditis from blood ment Meningitis Bacterial, viral, syphilitic, and granulomatous Meningioma en plaque Meningeal carcinoma- tosis Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Gyriform Enhancement Cerebral infarction Encephalitis Infiltrating primary or subpial metastatic neoplasm Cortical contusion Postepilepsy (e. Ring Enhancing Lesions 47 White matter lesions – Multiple sclerosis The frequent localization of acute and chronic MS le- sions in the corpus callosum is thought to be due to tracking of these lesions along the ependymal veins from the ventricular surface into the adjacent white matter. T2 lesions of the corpus callosum have re- cently become important in diagnosing MS, because they improve the sensitivity and specificity of MRI for the disease – Leukodystrophies The hallmark of the leukodystrophies is demyelination of the cerebral white matter; they are due to disorders of the peroxisomes, as in ADL, or of the lysosomal enzymes, as in Krabbe’s disease – Adrenal leukodystrophy (ADL) – Krabbe disease (globoid cell leukodystrophy) – Marchiafava–Big- This is a rare disorder of demyelination or necrosis of nami syndrome the corpus callosum and adjacent subcortical white matter, which occurs in malnourished alcoholics Severe hydrocephalus, and after ventricular shunting Infection – Lyme disease (borreliosis) – Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy Radiation damage Infarction Rare, as the blood supply is bilateral through the ante- rior cerebral arteries ADL: adrenal leukodystrophy; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; MS: multiple sclerosis. Ring Enhancing Lesions The triad tumor, pus, or blood accounts for most cases in adults (Fig. Axial T2WI shows a space-occupying lesion with a high intensity heterogeneous signal with solid and cystic features. Axial T1WI of the same case demonstrates an irregular postcontrast ring enhancement. Axial T1WI shows a space-occupying lesion with a post- contrast ring enhancement, central necrosis, and peritumoral edema. A postcontrast axial CT with a space-occupying lesion in the right basal ganglia with an irregular ring enhancement and marked surround- ing edema. Axial T2WI of the same case with a space-occupying lesion in the right basal ganglia with a thick capsule and marked perifocal edema. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Ring Enhancing Lesions 49 Fungal abscess – Cryptococcosis Cryptococcus ranks third behind HIV and toxoplasmo- sis as a cause of CNS infection in AIDS – Coccidioidoomycosis – Mucormycosis – Nocardiosis Nocardia lesions show a well-formed enhancing cap- sule containing multiple loculations – Aspergillosis In contrast to Nocardia infection, intracranial aspergil- losis rarely presents with ring enhancement – Candidiasis Candida is the most common cause of autopsy-proved non-AIDS cerebral mycosis Parasitic abscess – Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii infects the CNS in 10% of patients with AIDS and also immunocom- promised adults) – Cysticercosis Subacute resolving he- matoma with capsule Infarct Miscellaneous Tuberculosis Granuloma Demyelinating disease E. Axial T1WI shows a small subcortical postcontrast ring en- hancing toxoplasmosis brain abscess within the right temporal lobe. Axial T1WI with multiple secondary focal lesions demon- strating postcontrast ring enhancement and an extensive infiltrating edema disproportionate to the size of the lsions. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Occurs in new- borns with perinatal asphyxia, some of whom have seizures and require EEG monitoring for differential di- agnosis Nonconvulsive apnea Irregular respiratory patterns of 3–6 seconds, fol- lowed by 10–15 seconds of hyperpnea without signifi- cant changes in heart rate, blood pressure, tempera- ture, or skin color. This condition affects premature in- fants, and is caused by immaturity of the respiratory centers in the brain stem and not by a pathological condition Opisthotonos A prolonged arching of the back, probably caused by meningeal irritation. It is observed in the infantile Gaucher’s disease and kernicterus, and has to be differentiated from tonic seizures and decerebrate posturing Benign myoclonus Spasms in clusters increasing in frequency and inten- sity over weeks, which then after three months usually stop, with the exception of a few episodes; no spasms occur after two years of age. The infants are neuro- logically normal, and their EEG and CT scans of the head are normal CT: computed tomography; EEG: electroencephalography Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Neonatal Seizures by Time of Onset 51 Neonatal Seizures by Time of Onset Seizures in the first 24 h (In order of frequency, especially during the first 12 hours) Hypoxic–ischemic en- cephalopathy Sepsis and bacterial men- ingitis Subarachnoid hemorrhage Intrauterine infection Trauma (laceration of ten- torium or falx) Direct drug effects Intraventricular hemorrhage at term Pyridoxine dependency Seizures from 24h to 72 h (In order of frequency and importance) Intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants Subarachnoid hemorrhage Cerebral contusion with subdural hemorrhage Sepsis and bacterial men- ingitis Cerebral infarction or in- tracerebral hemorrhage Cerebral dysgenesis Drug withdrawal Metabolic disorders – Glycine encephalopathy – Glycogen synthetase deficiency – Hypoparathyroidism–hypocalcemia – Pyridoxine encephalopathy – Urea cycle disturbances Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved.
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