By L. Reto. Biola University.
These defects also appear to be persistent cacy in reducing cocaine effects acutely (71) buy cialis professional 20 mg lowest price erectile dysfunction aids. Outpatient for several weeks of abstinence at least cheap 40 mg cialis professional erectile dysfunction pump australia, and can be associated placebo-controlled studies have not been done with these with neuropsychological deficits (15–17,80). Unfortu- normally high levels of phosphomonoesters and lowlevels nately, this agent is not available in the United States, and of nucleotide triphosphates compared to normals (81). However, baclofen, which is a involve vasoconstriction (82) and platelet abnormalities. Abnormal platelets may produce thrombosis No other controlled trials have been published with this or in cerebral vessels and produce blood flowalterations (18). One study in six cocaine-dependent nary test of 4 weeks of aspirin therapy led to a 50% improve- volunteers examined the effect of disulfiram 250 mg on ment in cerebral perfusion (16). In a placebo-controlled responses to intranasal cocaine (2 mg/kg) using a random- study that has just been completed, aspirin significantly re- ized double-blind, placebo-controlled design (75). Al- duced perfusion defects on single photon emission com- though disulfiram induced no significant differences in co- puted tomography (SPECT) imaging (84,85). It was a large, multisite psychother- apy clinical trial for outpatients who met the DSM-IV crite- Although the simplest peripheral blocking approach of pas- ria for cocaine dependence. For 480 randomized patients, sively injecting polyclonal antibodies to cocaine into a four treatments were compared over an 18-month period. One treat- ies would not last very long and might be of limited use as ment also added cognitive therapy, one added supportive- a sustained treatment. For any type of relapse prevention, expressive psychodynamic therapy, and one added individ- the immune response elements must remain at relatively ual drug counseling. The final group had drug counseling high levels for periods of several weeks or months, which alone. Two specific interaction hypotheses, one involving is best done by active immunization (86). However, three psychiatric severity and the other involving degree of antiso- other approaches using catalytic antibodies, monoclonal cial personality characteristics, were examined, but no major passive antibodies, or injections of butrylcholinesterase have findings related to these hypotheses have been found (88, some promise (87). Either of these was intensive, including 36 possible individual sessions and effects can cause a very significant reduction in the high or 24 group sessions for 6 months. All four of these approaches can also be monthly during active treatment and at 9 and 12 months combined and used together with the pharmacotherapies after baseline. Primary outcome measures were the Addic- described above. The only approach that has been tested tion Severity Index–Drug Use Composite score and the in humans is active immunization (86). The initial animal number of days of cocaine use in the past month. Compared studies showed excellent production of a highly specific an- with the two psychotherapies and with group drug counsel- tibody to cocaine. With active immunization the amount ing (GDC) alone, individual drug counseling plus GDC of inhibition of cocaine entering the brain ranged from 30% showed the greatest improvement on the Addiction Severity to 63% at 30 seconds after cocaine injection in rats. Individual group coun- amount of inhibition was sufficient to extinguish cocaine seling plus GDC was also superior to the two psychothera- self-administration in the rat model. In the initial human study of this vaccine, it was well Hypotheses regarding the superiority of psychotherapy to tolerated with virtually no side effects using a dose of 1,000 GDC for patients with greater psychiatric severity and the g given with two booster injections over a 3-month period superiority of cognitive therapy plus GDC compared with (88). The vaccine produced substantive quantities of anti- supportive-expressive therapy plus GDC for patients with body that was related to both the dose of vaccine and the antisocial personality traits or external coping style were not number of booster injections. Thus, compared with professional psychother- potential efficacy in relapse prevention for abstinent cocaine apy, a manual-guided combination of intensive individual abusers appear warranted. PSYCHOTHERAPIES Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Professional Psychotherapy vs. Drug In spite of these overall discouraging results, cognitive be- Counseling havioral treatments have been among the most frequently Because of the limited efficacy of pharmacotherapy, the suc- evaluated psychosocial approaches for the treatment of sub- cess of behavioral and psychotherapies is important to con- stance use disorders and have a comparatively strong level sider. To date, more than 24 ran- use of professional therapies such as cognitive behavioral domized controlled trials have evaluated the effectiveness of therapy and supportive expressive therapies has been exam- cognitive behavioral relapse prevention treatment on sub- ined. Second, contingency management as a form of behav- stance use outcomes among adult tobacco smokers and alco- ioral therapy has gotten much attention and reasonable suc- hol, cocaine, marijuana, opiate, and other types of substance cess. These therapies have nowbeen extensively studied and abusers (93). Overall, these studies suggest that the average are increasingly being examined as treatments that might be effect size for CBT compared with control or comparison complemented by emerging pharmacotherapies.
The first study comparing a newer non-SSRI with control antidepres- three studies buy cialis professional 20 mg mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment options, which sampled data from 1989 to 1994 order cialis professional 20mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction medication cialis, found sants. These tables indicate for each study the sample size fluoxetine to be more cost-effective than sertraline or more in the administrative database, the time interval over which cost-effective than sertraline and paroxetine. A type of selec- data were sampled, the type of patient population, the newer tion bias that has been termed launch bias may have affected and control antidepressants analyzed, the stated principal these findings (46). The time frames of these studies over- economic outcome measure, the overall results on that out- lapped with the first year or two after launch of sertraline come measure as interpreted by the authors, and a brief and paroxetine. It is possible that a new antidepressant is discussion of methodologic limitations. One small pilot prescribed for a different type of patient in the early years study is not included in Table 78. Patients selected by their physicians to receive portedly found fluoxetine to be cost-effective in comparison a brand-new antidepressant may generally be more severely with TCAs (Skaer et al. Recent analyses have attempted to Simple vote counting across the studies in Table 78. However, another possibility is shows that the majority have concluded that SSRIs are more that patients selected by their prescribers to receive a brand- cost-effective than TCAs (seven favor at least one of the new antidepressant may on average have been more resistant studied SSRIs, none favor TCAs, and five are ties). Because treat- simple vote counting is unsatisfactory because these studies ment resistance correlates only partially with severity, ad- are subject to numerous methodologic limitations. The most important limitation of the studies in Table justment for severity of illness may only partially correct a 78. Most stud- different antidepressants may have changed during the ies attempting to control for previous treatment eliminate study interval (40,45). During this time period, important patients who received antidepressants in the 4 to 6 months influences on clinical practice totally unrelated to which before the start of the index antidepressant. Although this antidepressant was used may have changed, so that the influ- exclusion is somewhat reassuring, it still does not prevent ence of starts on one type of antidepressant versus another patients frombeing included in the analysis who were taking may have been confounded with the effect of changes in an antidepressant at the start of the study interval, then clinical influences. For example, during the period encom- stopped antidepressant therapy for 4 to 6 months, perhaps passed by the first study in Table 78. Such pa- care organizations independently reduced expenditures tients would be predicted to be relatively unlikely to respond through tighter management. Thus, a higher proportion of to treatment and relatively likely to incur treatment costs TCA starts may have occurred early in the study period, subsequent to the antidepressant start. To the extent that 1131 1132 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress TABLE 78. Are the patients who consent to random to DSM-IV 296. This assignment representative of the entire group of patients in restriction was intended to reduce the possibility of a selec- routine practice, or are they different in some important tion bias if the patients chosen to receive the newest medica- way? Relatively little attention has been paid to this issue tions were more refractory as a group than patients chosen in depression research, although in one study, the patients to receive more established medications. This possibility participating in a randomized trial of depression had signifi- may still have influenced the analysis because in subsequent cantly fewer comorbid diagnoses than did excluded patients studies, it was found that some patients with 'single-epi- and were more likely to have a single episode of depression sode' depression had had previous episodes that were (27). At present, only two prospective pharmacoeconomic The fourth study in Table 78. The initial report study, the time horizon (1995 through 1996) was 3 to 4 fromthe first study included data up to 6 months after years after the launch of sertraline and paroxetine. Patients were followed for 2 years after study found the three SSRIs to be equally cost-effective. Patients were enrolled fromparticipating pri- other newer non-SSRI antidepressants are similar to SSRIs mary care clinics in a large HMO in the United States. Patient out-of-pocket copayment prescription expenses The retrospective database method may be especially vul- were waived. Patient identification depended on primary nerable to publication bias. Because the retrospective studies care physician referral. Physicians were asked to refer pa- are inexpensive in comparison with prospective trials, and tients whomthey were starting on an antidepressant for because the number of potential study sites is large, the depression when both patient and physician were willing possibility is greater with retrospective studies that multiple to consider randomassignment. Of 621 patients referred, analyses are conducted but only a limited number pub- 579 (93%) were eligible, and 536 (93%) consented and lished. At baseline, 67% of randomized patients met DSM-III-R criteria for major depression; the remainder met criteria for either minor depression or dysthymia.
The 3D Combined Approach Matrix: an improved tool for setting priorities in research for health discount 20 mg cialis professional otc erectile dysfunction drugs that cause. Okello D generic cialis professional 40mg without prescription what is an erectile dysfunction pump, Chongtrakul P, COHRED Working Group on Priority Setting. A manual for research priority setting using the ENHR strategy. Geneva, Council on Health Research for Development, 2000. A manual for research priority setting using the essential national health research strategy. Geneva, Council on Health Research for Development, 2000. Setting priorities in global child health research investments: universal challenges and conceptual frame- work. Evidence-based priority setting for health care and research: tools to support policy in maternal, neo- natal, and child health in Africa. London, National Institute for Health Research, 2013. Policy research programme, best evidence for best policy. Setting priorities for health interventions in developing countries: a review of empirical studies. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2009,14:930-939. Setting implementation research priorities to reduce preterm births and stillbirths at the community level. Setting research priorities to reduce almost one million deaths from birth asphyxia by 2015. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from childhood pneumonia by 2015. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from childhood diarrhoea by 2015. Setting priorities in child health research investments for South Africa. Mental health research priorities in low- and middle-income countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2009,195:354-363. Research priorities for mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings. Research questions and priorities for tuberculosis: a survey of published systematic reviews and meta- analyses. An international roadmap for tuberculosis research: towards a world free of tuberculosis. Priorities in operational research to improve tuberculosis care and control. The malERA Consultative Group on Health Systems and Operational Research. A research agenda for malaria eradica- tion: health systems and operational research. Leishmaniasis: Middle East and North Africa research and development priorities. Vaccines for the leishmaniases: proposals for a research agenda. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Research priorities for neglected infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Research priorities for zoonoses and marginalized infections. Prioritized research agenda for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases.
Key themes emerging as requiring deeper understanding include: l the forms of influence that clinicians are actually achieving both as commissioners and providers under CCGs and associated arrangements l how leaders (managers and clinicians) are able to use the CCG as a platform and resource to bring about service redesign and buy cialis professional 20 mg with visa erectile dysfunction treatment herbs, as a key part of this order 40 mg cialis professional with mastercard impotence of organic organ, the balance between formal and informal opportunities for leadership l the impact of these emerging forms of power and influence on the achievement of more integrated and effective forms of patient care. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals 9 provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. The project proceeded through a series of sequential steps in five phases as mapped in the project Gantt chart (see Appendix 1). An extended scoping study encompassing 15 CCGs spread across England. Drawing on the results of this scoping work and on a review of the relevant literature, a national survey was designed and administered with the target population being all members of the governing boards of all 210 CCGs. This work was designed to reveal details of the processes involved in seeking meaningful service redesign through the deployment of clinical leadership and the in-depth study of a number of specific examples of attempted service redesign within these cases; the method here was to study clinical leadership in action. Drawing on the lessons learned from the case study work in phase 3, a second national survey was designed. Again, the target population was all the members of all CCG governing bodies (approximately 3100 people including accountable officers, chairpersons, GPs, secondary care doctors, nurses and lay members). A set of international comparisons enabled by sharing our results with leading international experts in other relevant health economies. The health systems chosen were those where there seemed to be some likely comparative resonance and thus the opportunity to generate further insights through the use of the perspective allowed by these comparisons. The main comparative economies selected were Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the USA. Phase 1 As part of the initial scoping work, studies were made of a relatively large sample of 15 CCGs and their associated hinterlands of HWBs, LAs and health-care providers. In this phase of the project, the research team were looking both outwards from focal CCGs and inwards from the perspectives of relevant others. This included gathering views from relevant stakeholder bodies such as NHSE, CQC, the Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management, the National Association of Primary Care, commissioning support units (CSUs), the London Office of CCGs, NHS clinical commissioners, clinical senates and local medical committees, LAs, HealthWatch, community services and acute hospitals (managers and consultants). Simultaneous with the work in the first phase we undertook a major literature review. This review, uniquely, not only embraced the literature on clinical leadership and leadership studies more generally, but reached out into related relevant literatures on CCGs and other earlier forms of local commissioning, and the literatures on service redesign and change in health services. The scoping phase was used to allow insight into the varied types of CCGs and to gain a sense of the range of practice across the country. Interviews were conducted with accountable officers, chairpersons and a representative sample of CCG office holders, including various clinical leads, locality leads, GP governing board members, lay members, nurses, secondary care doctors and patient and public representatives. Interviews were also conducted with LAs and with members of HWBs. This phase of the study also included observational studies of CCG board meetings and of HWBs. These were used to gain a sense of the scope of ambition and insight into which agents were engaged in what kinds of service redesign. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals 11 provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. PROJECT DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY The aim at this scoping stage was to capture and catalogue the range of issues. It was also designed to gain exposure to varied contexts across the country – allowing access to issues as experienced in inner and outer London, in Northern and Midland towns and cities, and in rural areas. Research team members used a common semistructured interview guide. Interviews were recorded and transcribed in most instances, depending on the wishes of the interviewees. Phase 2 The findings from this pilot phase were used to help construct the questionnaire for the first national survey of all 210 CCGs (following a merger the total later became 209) across England. In turn, the responses from that survey helped inform the selection of six core cases that were targeted for in-depth research over the ensuing 2 years.
9 of 10 - Review by L. Reto
Votes: 106 votes
Total customer reviews: 106