R. Vak. Chapman University.
The level of demand extra super cialis 100 mg online erectile dysfunction pump rings, arguably the most problematic of the three governing factors cheap extra super cialis 100mg with mastercard impotence research, is typically not controlled by the end user. Except for elective procedures for which the consumer pays out of pocket, most of the decisions that affect the demand for health services are made by gatekeepers such as physicians and health plans. Thus, the level of demand is more often a function of such factors as insurance plan provisions, availability of resources, and physician practice patterns than the level of sickness within the population. Healthcare Organizations A number of characteristics set healthcare organizations apart from the sell- ers in other industries. Many healthcare organizations, particularly hospi- tals, still linger in the production stage of their evolution. Many such The Challenge of Healthcare M arketing 27 organizations argue that their goal is the provision of high-quality medi- cine. They feel that by providing state-of-the-art technology and the physi- cians, nurses, and allied health personnel to support it, they will be able to attract customers. As with the early industrialists, many of these healthcare organizations have historically maintained oligopolistic or even monopolistic con- trol over their markets. Because of their dominance in the market or arrangements with competitors, health services providers have often been able to ensure a steady flow of patients without having to solicit them. Virtually all healthcare organizations face some competition, and innovations like telemedicine have broadened the scope of would- be competitors. While some purveyors of healthcare goods or services are single minded in their intent, large healthcare organizations like hospitals are likely to pur- sue a number of goals simultaneously. Indeed, the main goal of an aca- demic medical center may not be the provision of patient care at all; it may be education, research, or community service, with direct patient care being a secondary concern. Even large specialty practices are likely to be involved in teaching and research, and, while they are not likely to neglect their core activity, they often have a more diffuse orientation than organizations in other industries. Not-for-profit organizations have historically played a major role in healthcare; even today, not-for-profits continue to control a large share of the hospital-bed inventory. Although physician groups are usually incor- porated as for-profit professional corporations, large numbers of commu- nity-based clinics, faith-based clinics, and government-supported programs operate on a nonprofit basis. This not-for-profit orientation creates an envi- ronment much different from that characterizing other industries. The fact that many health facilities and programs operate with government support also creates a different dynamic. For some organizations the unpredictability of government subsidy is an unsettling factor. For others the assurance of government support allows them to operate perhaps less efficiently than they would otherwise. Another factor that sets healthcare organizations apart from their counterparts in other industries is the emphasis placed on referral rela- tionships. Hospitals depend on admissions from their medical staffs, and their staff members in turn depend on referrals from other physicians. Indeed, except in emergency situations, patients can only gain hospital admission through a referral. Many specialists will not accept self-referred patients but rely on other physicians to send them patients. The same types 28 arketing Health Services of referral relationships exist with regard to other services (e. This situation has become more complicated in that health plans may exert some level of influence over the referral process. Not only do health plans determine which providers can be seen under a particular coverage plan, they may require patients to be referred to specialists and may even seek to authorize any such referrals. In no other industry do parties who are not the end user exert such an influence on the process (see Box 2. Referral relationships as used here include any Importance of mechanism for the steering of consumers by a third party into the dis- Referral tribution channels of a healthcare organization or any use of an inter- Relationships mediary to promote goods and services to healthcare consumers. The importance of such relationships in healthcare is reflected by the fact that the end users of health services frequently do not make the consumption decision themselves. The purchase decision may be made by a physician, health plan, or some other party.
Comatose patients with metabolic disease – Confusion trusted 100mg extra super cialis best erectile dysfunction pills review, stupor and coma precede motor signs – The motor signs are usually symmetrical – The EEG is generally very slow – Caloric stimulation elicits either tonic deviation of the eyes or quality 100mg extra super cialis erectile dysfunction age 70, if the patient is deeply comatose, no response – Seizures are common Psychologically unresponsive patients – The EEG is normal – Caloric stimulation: there is a normal response to caloric irrigation, with nystagmus having a quick phase away from the side of ice-water irrigation; there is little or no tonic deviation of the eyes. Nystagmus is present – Lids close actively – No pathological reflexes are present – Pupils are reactive or dilated (cycloplegics) – Muscle tone is normal or inconsistent EEG: electroencephalogram. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Metabolic and Structural Coma 273 Metabolic and Structural Coma Metabolic and structural diseases are distinguished from each other by combinations of motor signs and their evolution, and electroencephalo- gram (EEG) changes. Comatose Patients with Metabolic Disease Patients are usually suffering from partial dysfunction affecting many levels of the neuraxis simultaneously, while at the same time the integ- rity of other functions originating at the same level is retained. In general, a suspicion of metabolic disease should be raised if the follow- ing findings are present. Cognitive and behavioral (If these represent the earliest or the only signs) changes Cognition – Poor memory – Disorientation – Language impairment – Inattention – Dyscalculia Behavior – Agitation – Delusions and/or halluci- nations Diffusely abnormal motor (Bilateral and symmetrical) signs Tremor Myoclonus Bilateral asterixis EEG Diffusely, but not focally, slow Acid–base abnormalities Frequent,withhyperventilationandhypoventilation Pupillary reactions Usually preserved even if the patient is comatose EEG: electroencephalogram. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. The clinical signs are certainly helpful, but there is too much overlap to allow the diagnosis to be established by the clinical findings alone. It is not uncommon, for example, for patients with hepatic encephalopathy or hypoglycemia to develop focal motor signs such as hemiparesis or visual field defects, which are characteristic of a structural lesion, whereas patients with multiple brain metastases may develop nothing other than a global alteration of cognitive function. The laboratory screening listed below are therefore essential for ex- cluding structural disease. BUN: blood urea nitrogen; CT: computed tomography; EEG: electroencephalogram; FDP: fibrin degradation product; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; PT: prothrombin time; PTT: partial thromboplastin time; T : triiodothyronine; T :3 4 thyroxine; The patient should be suspected of suffering from structural brain dis- ease, either alone or in combination with metabolic brain disease, if the following findings are present. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Coma-Like States 275 Coma-Like States The basic brain structure that is responsible for arousal is the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS). This system originates in the brain stem reticular formation, and extends to the cortex via the diffuse or nonspecific thalamofrontal projection system. Reticular activation by means of an external stimulus alerts widespread areas of the cortex and subcortex, enabling the patient to be alert and to think clearly, learn ef- fectively, and relate meaningfully to the environment. If there is damage to the extension of the brain stem reticular system in the thalamus or hypothalamus, the full picture of coma will not occur. Since the brain stem portion of the ARAS is intact, reticular activity in- nervates the nuclei of the extraocular nerves, and patients can open their eyes and look about. The cortex, however, is not sufficiently stimu- lated to produce voluntary movement or speech. The characteristics of the coma-like states are presented in the following tables: Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Coma-Like States 277 Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Trauma Score 279 – Abnormal focal motor signs (including focal seizures) occur, which progress rostrally to caudally, and are asymmetrical – Neurological signs point to one anatomical area (mesencephalon, pons, medulla) – Specific cognitive function disorders, such as aphasia, acalculia, or agnosia, appear out of proportion to a general overall decrease in mental state – The EEG may be slow, but in addition there is a focal abnormality – The patient is at particular risk of developing one of the complications of cancer that may mimic metabolic brain disease, particularly DIC or meningi- tis EEG: electroencephalogram. Trauma Score The trauma score is a numerical grading system for estimating the sever- ity of injury. The score consists of the Glasgow Coma Scale (reduced to approximately one-third of its total value) and measurements of car- diopulmonary function. Each parameter is given a number (high for nor- mal and low for impaired function). The severity of the injury is esti- mated by adding up the numbers; the lowest score is 1, and the highest score is 16. Parameter Range Score Respiratory rate 10–24/min 4 25–35/min 3 36/min or greater 2 1–9 min 1 None 0 Respiratory expansion Normal 1 Retractive/none 0 Systolic blood pressure 90mmHg or greater 4 70–80mmHg 3 50–69mmHg 2 0–49mmHg 1 No pulse 0 Capillary refill Normal 2 Delayed 1 None 0 The following table shows the projected estimate of survival for each value in the trauma score, based on results from 1509 patients with blunt or penetrating injury. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Respiratory Patterns in Comatose Patients 281 Respiratory Patterns in Comatose Patients Anatomical level of pathological lesion Respiratory patterns Forebrain damage Bilateral widespread cortical lesions Bilateral thalamic dysfunction Eupneic, with sighs or yawns Lesions in the descending pathways any- Cheyne–Stokes where from the cerebral hemispheres to the level of the upper pons Hypothalamic-midbrain damage Patients with dysfunction involving the Sustained regular hyperventilation rostral brain stem tegmentum. Lesions (despite the prolonged and rapid hy- have been found between the low mid- perpnea, patients are hypocapnic and brain and the middle third of the pons, relatively hypoxic, and have pulmo- destroying the paramedian reticular for- nary congestion, leading rapidly to mation just ventral to the aqueduct and pulmonary edema. This type of fourth ventricle breathing can therefore not be termed "primary hyperventilation") Lower pontine damage Patients have lesions or dysfunction of Apneustic breathing the lateral tegmentum of the lower half of the pons adjacent to the trigeminal motor nucleus.
First extra super cialis 100 mg mastercard erectile dysfunction guidelines 2014, consumers are not likely to limit resource utilization to prevent running up the cost of care buy cheap extra super cialis 100mg on-line erectile dysfunction symptoms causes. If they do not know the amount of the fees being charged, and do not have to pay them anyway, no incen- tive to use services wisely exists. Similarly, providers have no incentive to provide services efficiently if this is the case. Indeed, under traditional fee- for-service arrangements the incentives available to physicians contributed to greater use of resources. Second, few healthcare providers are able to use price as a means of competition or as a basis for marketing. With the exception of those organ- izations that provide elective services or serve a retail market, there is no way to compete based on price. Few healthcare organizations make their fee schedules public; even when they do, widely varying mechanisms for determining the price of a service are likely to be in place. For example, the per diem rates for a hospital room may be determined based on dif- ferent factors by two competing hospitals, thereby making comparisons meaningless. Healthcare consumers are not just hampered by a lack of knowledge on the cost of care but on other issues as well. Few consumers are knowledge- able concerning the operation of the healthcare system or have direct expe- rience with many aspects of its delivery mechanisms. There is typically no basis for evaluation of the quality of services provided by health facilities or practitioners, leaving the consumer with no means to make meaningful distinctions. Consumers must make judgments based on the provider’s 34 arketing Health Services reputation or superficial factors such as the appearance of the facilities, available amenities, or tastiness of the hospital’s food. The consumer has no means for comparing services, and the marketer has no real basis for differentiation. Another factor that sets healthcare consumers apart from other con- sumers is the personal nature of the services involved (see Box 2. While few healthcare encounters involve matters of life or death, virtually all involve an emotional component absent in other consumer transactions. Every diagnostic test is fraught with the possibility of an adverse finding, and every surgery, no matter how minor, carries the potential for com- plications. Today’s well-informed consumers are aware of the level of medical errors characterizing hospital care and the amount of system-induced mor- bidity associated with healthcare settings. Even if individuals remain stoic with regard to their own care, they are likely to exhibit an emotional dimension when the care concerns a parent, child, or some other loved one. Whether this emotionally charged and personal aspect of the health- care episode prevents the affected individual from seeking care, colors the choice of provider or therapy, or leads to additional symptoms, the choices made by the patient or other decision makers are likely to be affected. The fact that many consumers cannot bring themselves to even say the word "cancer" supports this view; emotions like fear, pride, and vanity often come into play. Given the pervasiveness of marketing in the United States, how can we explain the relative lack of marketing within an industry that accounts for 15 percent of the gross national product? A number of reasons can be cited to explain this situation, and most reflect characteristics noted in the earlier discussion of health industry attributes. The following fac- tors can be seen as barriers to the incorporation of marketing within the healthcare arena. No (Real or Perceived) Need Until the 1980s most healthcare organizations felt they had no competi- tors. There were plenty of patients, and revenues were essentially guaran- teed by third-party payers. Competition had been minimized through gentlemen’s agreements among various healthcare providers. If providers did not overtly collude to carve up the patient market, they respected infor- mal boundaries set to reduce competition. They maintained monopolies or oligopolies in their market areas and evinced a product orientation. These factors contributed to the perception (and, in many cases, the reality) that marketing was an unnecessary activity for healthcare organi- zations.
It is also involved in phonation and speech which are related to swal- lowing in that many of the muscles and nerves are the same generic extra super cialis 100 mg otc erectile dysfunction at 55. These processes are aided by the glossopharyngeal nerve which extra super cialis 100 mg line erectile dysfunction due to zoloft, with the vagus, carries sensory information to the brain and participates in the perception of taste and the control of salivary secretions. The accessory nerve (XI) is an accessory to the vagus and so it too should be included in this group. After this, the loose ends of taste sensa- tion and autonomic function may conveniently be tied up. The cranial end of the developing embryo is dominated by five pairs of structures which arise on either side of the primitive pharynx: these are the branchial (or pharyngeal) arches. Mandibular and facial movements and sensations are the functions of the first and second arches, of which the nerves are, respectively, the trigem- inal and facial. Pharyngeal movements and sensations involved in swallowing are the concern of the third, fourth and sixth arches, and the nerves of these are the glossopharyngeal (third arch) and the vagus (fourth and sixth arches) (see Table 3. This leaves the other main function of the head: the awareness of our surroundings. Our sense of smell is to a large extent linked with taste and basic physiological and psychological drives: it is therefore studied in connection with taste. Finally, vision, eye movements, balance and hearing are all interrelated and are con- sidered together. Thus, the cranial nerves are considered in the following order: 1 the trigeminal, facial and hypoglossal nerves (V, VII, XII); 2 the vagus, glossopharyngeal and accessory nerves (X, IX, XI); 3 autonomic function, taste sensation and olfaction (I); 4 vision and eye movements (II, III, IV, VI), and vestibular func- tion and hearing (VIII). Survey of cranial nerves and introduction to Parts II–V 43 Note In Parts II–V the anatomical course of each nerve is usually described from its brain stem attachment outwards. However, each functional group of fibres is described according to the direction taken by the nerve impulse, motor fibres being described from central to periph- eral, and sensory fibres from peripheral to central. PART II TRIGEMINAL, FACIAL AND HYPOGLOSSAL NERVES Chapter 6 CUTANEOUS SENSATION AND CHEWING 6. In this position it makes sense that the dorsal aspect of the neck and head should be supplied by dorsal rami of spinal nerves, and the ventral aspect of the neck and head (under the chin) by ventral rami. This leaves the entire anterior aspect of the face, which, in a quadruped, goes first into new environments, with a cutaneous nerve all to itself – the trigem- inal. All you have to do is remember that because we are upright bipeds, the relative positions of the head and trunk have changed as compared with the quadruped. Sensory information from the face and scalp is carried back to the trigeminal sensory nuclei (Section 4. Examples of these central connections can be illustrated by what happens when we wash our face in the morning. Connections from the trigeminal nuclei include those to: 1 the sensory cortex and other cortical centres for perception: we know what we are doing; 48 Trigeminal, facial and hypoglossal nerves 2 the limbic system: a habit like this pleases us because our mothers conditioned us to do it when we were children (quite wrongly as it happens since soap is bad for the skin); 3 the reticular formation: it wakes us up; 4 the hypothalamus: vasoconstriction or vasodilatation, according to the temperature of the water. The second and third divisions of the trigeminal innervate the roof and floor of the mouth, so it will not surprise you to learn that they are involved not only with cutaneous sensation but also with sensation in the oral cavity and with movements of the mandible. In a baby before weaning, the buccinator (VII) and the tongue (XII) are the principal muscles of sustenance producing the necessary sucking forces. Damage to VII in infants, for example birth injuries, will impair feeding (see Facial nerve injury in babies in Section 11. This proprioceptive information is carried to the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigem- inal nerve (Section 4. The consistency of the food is sensed by branches of the mandibu- lar nerve and when this is judged satisfactory, the bolus is propelled backwards on to the posterior (glossopharyngeal) portion of the tongue and swallowing begins. Once the bolus has passed the pos- terior portion of the tongue, the process is irreversible or, at any rate, reversible only with a great deal of coughing and spluttering. These impulses originate in the superior and inferior salivatory nuclei and pass to the glands through branches of the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves, and, peripherally, the trigeminal. Impulses from the sensory nuclei of the trigeminal nerve pass to the salivatory nuclei to influ- ence salivary production. Branches of the trigeminal and facial nerves also transmit taste sensation fibres from the anterior portion of the tongue and the oral mucosa to the solitary tract and nucleus. It has three divisions (ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular) subsequently treated as separate nerves. The trigeminal nerve (V) 51 Mesencephalic, pontine and spinal nuclei of V Trigeminal ganglion, partly in Meckel’s cave Ophthalmic nerve (Va) Maxillary nerve (Vb) Mandibular nerve (Vc) Trigeminal motor nucleus Fig. Frontal nerve (frontal sinus, and skin of forehead and scalp): • Passes immediately below frontal bone and divides into supraorbital (larger, lateral) and supratrochlear (medial) nerves.
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