By Y. Wilson. Baltimore Hebrew University. 2018.
Although many prod- ucts are advertised as nutritional ergogenic aids super viagra 160mg low price erectile dysfunction incidence age, few FLUID REPLACEMENT BEVERAGES products are actually supported by research purchase 160mg super viagra free shipping erectile dysfunction exam video. Many purported ergogenic aids provide no benefit (but are During and after exercise of ~1-h duration, a fluid harmless, e. A common side effect itates increased consumption compared to water of this product is weight gain. Possible side effects include upset Some research suggests that even for intermittent, stomach, nervousness, irritability, and diarrhea. Tea, coffee, and sodas with fluid replacement beverages because the carbohydrate caffeine can provide 50–100 mg/serving. Most content will not increase the drive to drink or maintain advertisements use personal testimonials that may be fluid balance. In addition, carbonation will increase convincing, but are not based on research that has the carbon dioxide content in the stomach and can been duplicated and widely accepted. Caffeinated products can care professionals oppose the use of all nutritional CHAPTER 14 NUTRITION 89 ergogenic aids. Those who do recommend their use and creatine intake may help increase performance should examine the safety, efficacy, potency, and and power output for both long-distance runners and legality of the product before discussing the product sprinters, respectively. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS/ENERGY BARS REFERENCES Dietary supplements can be found as pills, powders, Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, et al: Dietary intake of beverages, and bars. As with ergogenic aids, many vitamins, minerals, and fiber of persons ages 2 months and dietary supplements are advertised with claims that over in the United States. Third National Health and Nutrition sound appealing, but for the most part are not sup- Examination Survey, Phase 1, 1988–91. Below PR, Mora-Rodriguez R, Gonzalez-Alonso J, et al: Fluid Most athletes can meet their nutrient needs by con- and carbohydrate ingestion independently improve perform- suming a well-balanced diet. Med Sci Sports Exerc caloric needs, and if caloric needs are met by the con- 27:200–10, 1995. For example, when athletes train in rowing performance after caffeine ingestion. Med Sci Sports intensely, they may expend 3000–6000 kcal in train- Exerc 32:1958–63, 2000. Consumption of an energy dense beverage Bruce CR, Anderson ME, Fraser SF, et al: Enhancement of 2000-m or bar may help athletes meet calorie needs. Med Sci Sports that provide carbohydrate and protein are recom- Exerc 32:1958–63, 2000. Supplementation with individual amino Burke LM, Read RS: Dietary supplements in sport. The USP establishes stan- Burke LM: Nutritional needs for exercise in the heat. Carrithers JA, Williamson DL, Gallagher PM, et al: Effects of postexercise carbohydrate-protein feedings on muscle glyco- SUMMARY gen restoration. Nutrition for Sport A balanced diet that provides the proper amounts of and Exercise. This is especially impor- College of Sports Medicine position stand: Exercise and fluid tant for the athlete who might be training intensely or replacement. The three primary Coyle EF, Coggan AR, Hemmert MK, et al: Muscle glycogen uti- energy systems used during running are the power, lization during prolonged strenuous exercise when fed carbo- speed, and endurance systems. Coyle EF, Jeukendrup AE, Wagenmakers AJ, et al: Fatty acid oxi- used and energy requirements will vary for each indi- dation is directly regulated by carbohydrate metabolism during vidual depending on such factors as mode of activity, exercise. To aid Davis JM, Jackson DA, Broadwell MS, et al: Carbohydrate in peak performance it is recommended that the ath- drinks delay fatigue during intermittent, high-intensity cycling lete pay special attention to preevent, event, and in active men and women. This will help ensure Deuster PA, Day BA, Singh A, et al: Zinc status of highly trained adequate hydration, glucose intake, and recovery. Am J Clin Nutr Finally, the use of such methods as glycogen loading 49:1295–1301, 1989. National Academy of Sciences: Recommended Dietary Allowances, Fogelholm M: Indicators of vitamin and mineral status in ath- 10th ed. National Academy of Sciences: Dietary reference intakes for cal- Helge JW, Richter EA, Kiens B: Interaction of training and diet cium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. National Academy of Sciences: Dietary Reference Intakes for Houtkooper L: Food selection for endurance sports. Med Sci thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, Sports Exerc 24:S349–59, 1992.
When associated with hormonal disorders but most commonly affect the proximal metaphysis of the condition is known as Albright syndrome buy cheap super viagra 160mg on-line trazodone causes erectile dysfunction. Several lesions can also occur dystrophia fibrosa super viagra 160 mg with visa erectile dysfunction treatment calgary, osteitis fibrosa disseminata, Mc- simultaneously in one bone. The condition progresses Cune-Albright syndrome, Jaffé-Lichtenstein disease asymptomatically unless a pathological fracture occurs or bowing is outwardly visible (⊡ Fig. Historical background Bowing particularly affects the proximal femur, where the Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia was first described by Lich- soft bone can bend into the shape of a »shepherd’s crook« tenstein in 1938. Clinically relevant leg length discrepancies merged the polyostotic and monostotic forms under can also occur. The osteolytic areas, the cortex is thin and bulges out, usually individual lesions are generally asymptomatic and do the whole bone is widened and the basic structure shows a not require treatment. Only if symptoms, fractures or ground glass opacity in the osteolytic zones. This ground pronounced bowing occurs are therapeutic measures in- glass pattern is attributable to the formation of new bone. A suitable Osteolytic and sclerotic components appear next to each solution for stabilization is an intramedullary load-bear- other. The cortical bone is eroded and the bone is wid- ing implant in the area of the femoral neck, or so-called ened as a result of new periosteal bone formation. Mi- »Y nail« or Gamma-nail (also known as a »Zickel nail«) crofractures also occur and can lead to painful episodes. In children with open epiphyseal plates tively signal-rich in both the T1- and T2-weighted images, the new telescopic Gamma-nail can be used (⊡ Fig, 4. In the McCune-Albright syndrome the polyostotic fi- If doubt exists, the diagnosis must be confirmed by bi- brous dysplasia is accompanied by abnormal skin pigmen- opsy before such a radical measures is undertaken. Since tations that resemble the café-au-lait spots in neurofibro- fracture and osteotomy healing is not usually impaired, matosis. Girls experience a precocious puberty, resulting surgical measures are only rarely indicated. A biopsy is in a small stature as a result of the premature epiphyseal only indicated prior to surgical procedures. Other hormonal disorders such as hyperthyroid- are asymptomatic, the current imaging procedures are ism can occur, and cortisone metabolism may also be sufficient for establishing the diagnosis. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva Differential diagnosis > Definition Individual foci are not always easy to differentiate radio- This is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder (gene logically from solitary bone cysts, since the latter also show locus 4q27–31) characterized by progressively increasing swelling of the bone with an osteolytic lesion and inter- calcification and ossification of the fasciae, aponeuroses, vening bone trabeculae. However, the ground glass opac- tendons and ligaments and shortening of the great toes. Note that both lesions can show a strong signal on the MRI scan because of the fluid content. The etiology involves the abnormal induction of en- Another important differential diagnosis to consider chondral osteogenesis in connective tissue. This bone morphogenic protein content (BMP) of the cells condition occurs almost exclusively on the tibia and is is increased. If a polyostotic form of fibrous ly ossifications – occur primarily in the interstitial dysplasia is present, however, there is little possibility of connective tissue and in the tendons and ligaments, confusion. Enchondromatosis and histiocytosis, which also but not in the actual muscles. The use of the term affect multiple bones, usually differ markedly in their ap- »myositis« in this context is therefore misleading. Enchondromas only produce mini- Occurrence: The disease is very rare with only a few mal swelling of the bone and tend to form calcifications. A total of 44 cases were While the appearance of histiocytosis varies considerably, described in a meta-analysis. Clinical findings include widely varying abnormalities of the great toes (usually shortening) at birth, and the Prognosis thumbs may also be shortened.
The Achilles tendon is stronger heel loading also occurs secondarily in a steppage gait than the small bones of the rearfoot discount super viagra 160 mg with visa erectile dysfunction drugs don't work, which are still after the forefoot has struck the ground (ball-heel in a cartilaginous state at this stage generic super viagra 160mg with mastercard impotence natural treatment. The examiner must also observe whether the Stimulation forms another part of the examination. Par- foot-strike is plantigrade or whether the foot supi- ticularly in patients with metatarsus adductus, tickling nates, placing most of the load on the lateral edge. The of the lateral edge of the foot will activate the peroneal opposite picture, i. The examination of the walking patient also includes observation of the knees. During the stance phase Other investigations are the knees extended normally (i. Since hip dysplasia and clubfoot often occur togeth- hyperextension) or insufficiently extended (remain in er, an ultrasound scan of the hips is always indicated in flexion of more than 10°)? Clubfoot is also observed in connection with Examining the patient while walking on tiptoes and arthrogryposis and diastrophic dwarfism. Macrodactyly heels is also useful, as this is a quick and simple way of can be associated with the Klippel-Trenaunay and Proteus establishing whether coarse motor function is normal syndromes. Examination protocol for the upper ankle and foot Examination Question I. Medial longitudinal arch of the foot Normal, lowered, medial weight-bearing, elevated, footprint? Palpation Tenderness Calcaneus, malleoli, talus, navicular, forefoot Joint space in upper ankle Effusion, capsule swelling? Range of motion Ankle joint Dorsal extension/plantar flexion with extended (possibly also flexed) knee, active and passive Subtalar joint Valgus and varus movement Forefoot Pronation/supination Whole foot Inversion/eversion V. Stability Lateral stability of ankle and subtalar joint Forced inversion AP stability of upper ankle Anterior drawer test Examination of the standing patient Medial longitudinal arch of the foot: Observe whether ▬ Is there any swelling, redness or bulging? Evaluation of the footprint: The footprint under load ▬ Observation of the rearfoot axis: Is this in a physiological can be visualized either on the podoscope (a glass valgus position of approx. Variants of the forefoot are also observed the loaded zone can be inspected immediately after in respect of toe length (⊡ Fig. The callosity on the great toe must also be noted: neutral position, valgus foot provides information about functional weight- deviation (in the metatarsophalangeal or interphalan- bearing. Any superduction criterion for evaluating the formation of the longitu- or subduction of individual toes should also be noted. Forefoot variants: a intermediate foot (1st and 2nd toes roughly the same length), b Greek foot (2nd toe longer than the 1st), c Egyptian foot (1st toe longer than the 2nd) a b c ⊡ Fig. Medial arch of the foot from the medial side: a normal foot (or »flat valgus foot«), b flexible flatfoot, c pes cavus 370 3. Footprints: a normal foot with callusing under the 3rd metatarsal heads (rare in children and adolescents); d flexible flat- heel and the 1st and 5th metatarsal heads; b pes cavus with no foot with a missing medial arch, but otherwise normal weight-bearing weight-bearing in the metatarsal area; c splayfoot with widening of pattern; e heavy, rigid flatfoot with principal weight-bearing on the the forefoot and callus formation predominantly under the 2nd and medial side in the midfoot area (under the talus) Palpation functional respects, it is much more important to Examination of the supine patient perform this examination with the knee extended ▬ Tenderness: Typical painful sites in children and ado- rather than flexed, since the knee is extended during lescents are the heel (in calcaneal apophysitis), the walking. Dorsal extension is restricted in the extended lateral malleolus and the talar neck (in injuries or knee when the two-joint gastrocnemius is contracted. Grasping the lower leg with one hand, the ex- head (in juvenile hallux valgus) and the 2nd, 3rd or aminer grasps the calcaneus with the other and turns 4th metatarsal heads (in Freiberg’s disease or a stress it inwardly and outwardly (⊡ Fig. We describe simply whether the move- is readily observed and palpated in the ankle joint. Range of motion The combined rotational movement of the fore- and rearfoot is termed eversion and inversion, and is tested! Both sides should always be measured when by grasping the lower leg with one hand, the forefoot examining mobility in the upper and lower ankle. Since this test is likewise not very precise, we ▬ Ankle joint: dorsal extension/plantar flexion: The pa- restrict ourselves to descriptions such as »normal«, tient is examined in the supine position with the knee »increased« (in instability), »slight«, »greatly restrict- extended. Active: The patient tarsophalangeal joint, and possibly the interphalan- is asked to perform the same movement himself. In functional respects, however, the examina- extension and plantar flexion can be examined both with the knee tion with the knee extended is more important, since walking takes flexed and extended. The extent of dorsal extension is always slightly place in this position greater with the knee flexed than extended because of the relaxed a b c ⊡ Fig. Stating the a The heel is grasped with one hand and turned inwardly (b inver- result in degrees is not very useful. The examiner should simply state sion) and outwardly (b eversion) in relation to the lower leg.
This classification can usefully serve as a basis for the decision concerning the appropriate treatment (see below) generic super viagra 160 mg on-line erectile dysfunction injection therapy video. Other tumors affecting the forearm are enchondromas order super viagra 160mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction jokes, osteoid osteomas, fibrous dysplasia and giant cell tumors. On the hand enchondromas can cause troublesome swelling of the phalanges. AP x-ray of the hand in an 11-year old boy with enchon- can also be caused by soft tissue tumors or tumor-like dromaof the 2nd and 3rd proximal phalanges. Tumors on the hand are usually diagnosed at an causing the bone to protrude and were proving troublesome, curet- tage was indicated in this case, although enchondromas of the hand early stage since they prove troublesome even when small do not normally require treatment in size. Osteochondroma on the ulna (Masada type I) with growth disturbance a patient with a solitary bone cyst will generally heal com- pletely and unproblematically with conservative treatment. Classificationof growth disturbances due to osteochondro- The situation is quite different, however, for locally mas on the forearm. Likewise, tumors that cause pain, such as the chondroblastoma, osteoblas- Treatment toma or osteoid osteoma, should be treated. Osteoid os- Since the therapeutic strategies for bone tumors are dis- teomas affecting the upper extremity are often diagnosed cussed in detail in chapter 4. The treatment is based on the usual aspects will be highlighted at this point. Any Benign bone tumors that occur on the scapula, where they are usually located As a rule, surgery is not indicated for benign bone tumors on the ventral aspect, should be removed, as otherwise and tumor-like lesions of the upper extremities if they show the scapula will protrude and shoulder mobility may no aggressive growth locally and do not cause any pain. The same applies to large more conservative approach is appropriate here than for osteochondromas of the proximal humerus, which can the lower extremities. On the forearm osteochondromas the risk of deformation is much less than for the leg. In the upper extremity, neither lesion usually re- on this classification, the corresponding treatment shown quires treatment. In young patients we use Osteochondromas of the distal radius and ulna should the clavicles as a replacement for the proximal humerus. The ulna can be lengthened via an acromioclavicular joint and fixed to the residual fragment intramedullary Prévot nail, which prevents bowing of the of distal humerus (⊡ Fig. Enchondromas on the hand can occasionally prove troublesome if they cause the bone to expand. Removal by curettage is indicated in such cases, and the defect can be filled with a cancellous bone graft. On the other hand, enchondromas that do not cause any problems should be left untreated. Malignant bone tumors The treatment strategies for the relatively common osteo- sarcoma and the rare Ewing sarcoma follow the standard guidelines ( Chapter 4. Certain particular aspects concerning resection are worth mentioning: Osteosar- comas are usually located in the area of the proximal humeral metaphysis. Since the axillary nerve lies very close to the bone in its course from the posterior to the anterior side, a wide resection of the tumor is often not possible without also resecting this nerve. This will then lead to a failure of the deltoid muscle and thus of almost all active shoulder mobility. If very large, malignant, high-grade tumors are present in the shoulder area, the scapula may sometimes need to be removed completely together with the proximal humerus. In doubtful cases the surgeon can opt for the procedure of interscapulo- ⊡ Fig. Left Preoperative view after 3 months of che- The reconstruction is also aggravated by the absence motherapy. Right After proximal humeral replacement by the clavicula of the axillary nerve since it will not be possible to center pro humero technique ⊡ Fig. Principle of proximal humeral replacement in the »clavicula pro humero« technique according to Winkelmann. The clavicle is detached from the sternum and rotated downward in the acromioclavicular joint and fixed to the remaining section of a b the humerus 526 3. The muscles can be refixed to this graft, individuals have to position their hand in extreme flex- which provides a certain degree of purchase. This is not ion when writing to avoid smudging the ink with the the case, however, for metal or plastic prostheses, which palm.
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